Are Dog and Cat Fleas One and the Same? The Surprising Truth About These Pesky Parasites

Fleas are a common external parasite found on cats, dogs, and other animals. The most common flea species that infests cats and dogs is the cat flea, known scientifically as Ctenocephalides felis. Cat fleas make up over 90% of flea infestations in dogs and 99% in cats. Fleas can cause significant irritation, discomfort, and health issues in pets. They can also pose a nuisance and potential health hazard for pet owners if an infestation spreads throughout the home.

This article provides an overview of fleas affecting cats and dogs, including their life cycle, behavior, health risks, and prevention and treatment options. It will also highlight some key differences between fleas in cats versus dogs.

Types of Fleas

types of fleas in cats and dogs

The most common flea species that infest cats and dogs in North America are the cat flea (Ctenocephalides felis) and the dog flea (Ctenocephalides canis) (Fleas in Dogs and Cats – Integumentary System). Though they have species names indicating cats or dogs, these fleas will readily infest both animal hosts. Cat fleas are more prevalent than dog fleas.

Other less common flea species that may infest pets include the Northern rat flea (Nosopsyllus fasciatus), human flea (Pulex irritans), and oriental rat flea (Xenopsylla cheopis). These fleas originated on rodents but will bite cats and dogs if their normal hosts are unavailable (What’s the Difference Between Fleas on Cats vs. Dogs? – Orkin).

Life Cycle

The life cycle of fleas has four stages – egg, larva, pupa, and adult. Female adult fleas lay eggs on the host which fall off into the environment. The eggs hatch into larvae within 1-12 days. The larvae feed on organic debris and flea feces for 5-11 days before spinning a cocoon and entering the pupal stage. Inside the cocoon, the larva metamorphoses into an adult flea, a process which can take anywhere from 1 week to 6 months depending on environmental conditions. When ready, adult fleas emerge from the cocoon in response to vibrations, warmth, exhaled carbon dioxide, and other stimuli indicating a potential host is near. Once emerged, adult fleas jump onto a host to feed on blood for nutrition and to continue the flea life cycle.

Fleas can complete their entire lifecycle on a host animal. But fleas thrive best in warm, humid environments which allow a larger percentage of eggs, larvae, and pupae to survive and successfully emerge as adults. Cooler temperatures slow down or halt the flea life cycle.

Behavior

Fleas locate hosts primarily through sensing vibrations, body heat, and carbon dioxide. They have excellent abilities to detect these cues and will jump towards a potential host. Once on a host, fleas use specialized mouthparts to pierce the skin and feed on blood. The bites are painless initially due to flea saliva containing anesthetics.

Female fleas start feeding within 24 hours of emerging from their cocoon and must have a blood meal before they can reproduce. After feeding, the female flea will lay around 30 eggs per day. Fleas can transmit diseases as they move between hosts, including the bacteria that causes plague in humans and cats.

According to Propacific Pest Control, bites usually occur on pets during an infestation, but bites on humans are common as well. Ankles and calves are the most likely spot for a flea to bite people. Fleas can pull 160,000 times their own weight and jump vertically up to 7 inches, making them adept at latching onto hosts (https://www.propacificpestcontrol.com/lp/fleacontrol/irvine/flea-behavior.html).

Health Risks

The most important health risks associated with cat and dog fleas are diseases that can be transmitted through fleas. Fleas can spread bacterial, viral, and protozoal infections between animals through their bites. Some of the most serious flea-transmitted diseases include:

– Plague caused by Yersinia pestis bacteria. Plague is spread by rodent fleas but can be transmitted to dogs and cats. It causes fever, swollen lymph nodes, and can be fatal if untreated (Hartz).

– Typhus caused by Rickettsia typhi bacteria. Fleas spread endemic typhus between rats, but their bites can also infect humans and pets (Fruitland Veterinary Hospital).

– Tularemia caused by Francisella tularensis bacteria. This is also called rabbit fever since it is spread by rabbit fleas. Dogs and cats can get tularemia if exposed to infected fleas or wildlife (Hartz).

Signs of Infestation

signs of a flea infestation

Both cats and dogs will exhibit similar symptoms when infested with fleas. The most common signs of fleas include excessive scratching and skin irritation. Fleas feed on the blood of their hosts, and their saliva contains proteins that can cause skin allergies and inflammation. This leads to intense itching and discomfort.

You may notice your pet scratching or biting at their fur constantly, especially around the base of the tail, under legs, abdomen, and neck. Red bumps or rashes may appear on the skin as a reaction to flea bites.Hair loss and hot spots can also develop from excessive scratching. Your pet may seem very restless and agitated.

Check your pet’s skin and coat for signs of fleas themselves. Look for tiny dark specks of flea dirt, which is actually digested blood excreted by fleas. Use a flea comb to help remove flea dirt from the fur. You may also see live fleas moving rapidly through the fur. Fleas are very small, wingless insects that can jump long distances.

Also inspect your home environment for flea eggs and larvae. Fleas lay eggs which fall off the host into carpets, bedding, and soft furnishings. You may see white specks which indicate flea eggs. Examine areas where your pet sleeps or rests for signs of infestation.

The severity of symptoms depends on the level of infestation. Heavily infested pets tend to exhibit more skin reactions and hair loss. Carefully monitor your pet’s behavior and skin condition to identify flea problems early.

Sources:
https://www.beaphar.co.uk/blog/fleas/flea-life-cycle-and-how-to-kill/

Prevention

There are a number of effective products and strategies to help prevent flea infestations in cats and dogs. Some of the most common recommendations include:

preventing fleas in pets

Topical flea prevention treatments – These products like Frontline and Advantage are applied to the skin on the back of the neck and kill fleas and ticks. They are very effective when used monthly.[1]

Oral flea prevention – Chewable tablets like Nexgard, Bravecto and Simparica contain insecticides that spread throughout the bloodstream and skin and kill fleas and ticks. They provide 1-3 months of protection.[2]

Flea collars – Collars like the Seresto flea and tick collar provide 8 months of continuous protection by releasing small amounts of insecticide onto the fur and skin. They are less messy than topicals.[3]

Flea and tick shampoos – Shampoos with insect growth regulators help kill fleas and ticks on contact during bathing. They can be used along with other preventives.[1]

Flea combs – Fine-toothed flea combs can help remove live fleas and eggs when brushed thoroughly through the fur. This works best along with other prevention methods.[2]

Regular vacuuming and washing of bedding – This helps remove eggs and developing fleas from the home environment.

Treating the yard – Products containing insect growth regulators, pyrethrins or neonicotinoids can be sprayed outside to kill fleas and prevent re-infestation.

[1] https://uk.frontline.com/pet-advice/flea-prevention-for-cats-and-dogs
[2] https://be.chewy.com/the-ultimate-guide-to-flea-and-tick-prevention/
[3] https://www.citybytheseavet.com/pet-health-library/flea-and-tick-prevention/

Treatment

There are a variety of effective products available to kill fleas on both cats and dogs. Some popular topical flea treatments include:

Vet’s Best Flea + Tick Spot-On for Cats – This plant-based formula uses certified natural oils to kill fleas and ticks. It is easy to apply, fast-acting, and lasts for 30 days.

Petco Cat Flea & Tick Treatments – Petco offers a variety of vet-recommended, fast-acting monthly spot-ons, collars, shampoos, sprays, wipes, and oral treatments to kill fleas on cats and dogs.

When using flea control products, carefully follow the instructions for proper dosage and application. Consult your veterinarian if you have any concerns about side effects or safety.

Environmental Control

treating the home environment
To effectively control fleas, you need to treat not just your pet but also your home and yard. Fleas thrive in carpeting, furniture, pet bedding and other areas inside the home. Outside, fleas can live in areas with vegetation, wood piles, leaf litter and sandy soil. Treating these environments is key to getting rid of fleas long-term.

When treating inside the home, focus on areas where your pet spends time and sleeps. Vacuum all floors, furniture and pet bedding thoroughly and frequently, being sure to discard the vacuum bag after each use. Steam cleaning carpets can also help kill flea eggs and larvae. You may also consider applying an indoor environmental flea spray, taking care not to contaminate food prep areas. Products containing insect growth regulators are ideal as they prevent immature fleas from developing into adults. Refer to product labels for specific application instructions.

For outside areas, trim back vegetation and clear away any wood piles or dense brush around the home. Apply an outdoor environmental flea control spray to areas where pets frequent, like under porches, patios and decks. As with indoor sprays, products with insect growth regulators give longer-lasting control. Always follow label directions carefully when applying outdoor sprays. Some products should not be used in areas accessible to pets and children until dry. Repeating treatments periodically will help ensure fleas don’t rebound.

With diligent treatment inside and out, you can eliminate fleas from your home environment and prevent reinfestation. Refer to Flea Control and The Flea-Infested Pet: How to Manage the Pet and Its Environment for more environmental flea control tips.

Differences in Cats and Dogs

While cat and dog fleas are very similar, there are some key differences between the two:

Cat fleas (Ctenocephalides felis) prefer cats as hosts, but will also feed on dogs, humans and other animals. Dog fleas (Ctenocephalides canis) prefer dogs as hosts but can also infest cats and other animals [1]. However, cat fleas are much more common than dog fleas.

Cat fleas are able to produce more eggs than dog fleas. Female cat fleas can lay up to 50 eggs per day, while dog fleas only lay about 10 eggs per day [2].

Cat fleas tend to stay on their host, while dog fleas spend more time in the environment. This means cat fleas are less likely to infest a home compared to dog fleas [3].

While there are some differences, both cat and dog fleas can still cause major irritation, discomfort and health issues for pets. It’s important to use effective flea prevention and treatment measures for cats, dogs and the home environment.

Leave a Comment

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

Scroll to Top