Is Cat Pee Killing You? The Toxic Truth About Feline Urine Odors

The Dangers of Cat Urine Odor

The strong ammonia smell from cat urine can be overpowering. In fact, cat urine contains mercaptans, compounds that have an extremely pungent odor even in small quantities. This is why cat urine smells so much stronger than human urine. While the odor itself may seem like just a nuisance, there are real dangers associated with breathing it in.

What Causes the Smell

The strong odor from cat urine is primarily caused by ammonia, uric acid, and bacterial enzymes in the urine composition.

Ammonia is a major component of cat urine. It forms from the breakdown of urea by bacterial enzymes. The pungent ammonia odor is familiar to most cat owners. Ammonia irritates the respiratory tract and mucosal tissues, which is why cat urine smells so potent and unpleasant.

Uric acid also contributes to the strong smell. It’s a product of protein metabolism in cats. Uric acid breaks down into ammonia. So higher concentrations lead to more ammonia production and a stronger odor.

Finally, bacterial enzymes like urease catalyze the hydrolysis of urea into carbon dioxide and ammonia. This reaction occurs when bacteria from the environment enter the urine. The more degraded the urine is by bacteria, the stronger the smell.

Health Effects

Inhaling ammonia fumes and uric acid dust from cat urine can have several negative health effects. Ammonia is a toxic gas that irritates the eyes, nose, throat and respiratory tract (source). Exposure to high levels of ammonia can cause coughing, wheezing, chest pain, bronchitis, pneumonia and swelling of the lungs. Long-term exposure may lead to asthma and permanent lung damage.

Uric acid is a component of cat urine that forms dust when urine dries. Inhaling uric acid dust can cause respiratory issues and allergic reactions in some people. The small particles can get lodged in the lungs, leading to inflammation, coughing and breathing difficulties (source). Those with asthma or allergies may experience worsened symptoms when exposed to cat urine particles in the air.

someone coughing from breathing in cat urine particles

Respiratory Issues

The ammonia in cat urine can cause irritation and inflammation of the nasal passages, throat, and lungs when inhaled over time. According to The Hidden Dangers of Cat Urine and Feces, inhaling cat urine particles and dust can lead to respiratory problems like coughing, wheezing, and shortness of breath. The high ammonia concentration in cat urine is particularly problematic, as exposure to large amounts of ammonia may trigger respiratory diseases.

As the ammonia gas is breathed in, it causes the linings of the nose, throat and lungs to become inflamed and swollen. This inflammation makes breathing more difficult and can lead to coughing as the body tries to expel the irritant. Prolonged exposure may cause permanent damage to the delicate respiratory tissues over time. People with existing respiratory conditions like asthma are especially susceptible to the effects of breathing in cat urine ammonia.


Cat urine contains a protein called Felis Domesticus 1 (Fel D1) which can trigger asthma symptoms in some people when inhaled. According to veterinarians at Carolina Vet Specialists, inhaling Fel D1 can exacerbate existing asthma and trigger attacks (source). Similarly, the emergency vets at VSCOT explain that Fel D1 causes bronchial irritation and inflammation leading to asthma flare-ups (source).

In addition to urine, cat saliva also contains Fel D1. As a result, asthma sufferers may experience worsening symptoms when exposed to cat dander or fur as it contains traces of saliva. According to Carolina Vet Huntersville, sensitivity varies but any exposure can potentially trigger an attack for those with asthma (source).

an inhaler being used to treat asthma triggered by cats


The strong odor from cat urine can worsen allergy symptoms in people who are already allergic to cats. The ammonia in cat urine is a respiratory irritant that can exacerbate conditions like asthma and allergies ( Cat urine allergies can cause wheezing, coughing, sneezing, eye irritation, nasal congestion and other allergy symptoms ( The ammonia toxicity from the urine is thought to worsen respiratory issues in those prone to allergies. Keeping litter boxes clean, using odor reducing litters, and cleaning soiled areas quickly can help reduce allergy triggers. Those with severe cat urine allergies may need to avoid prolonged exposure or consider allergy treatments.

Long-Term Effects

Long-term exposure to the ammonia in cat urine can have serious effects on respiratory health. According to The Hidden Dangers of Cat Urine and Feces, breathing in cat urine over months or years can lead to chronic bronchitis and lung damage.

The ammonia irritates the respiratory tract and causes inflammation. Over time, this can result in permanent scarring of the bronchial tubes and airways, making breathing difficult. The damage also reduces the lungs’ ability to filter out toxins, bacteria, and allergens.

Cat urine exposure has been linked to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), a progressive disease that blocks airflow and makes it hard to breathe. COPD includes chronic bronchitis and emphysema. The toxins in the urine attack the lung tissue, break down air sac walls, and create large air pockets that don’t fully deflate.

According to experts, the smell of cat urine does not necessarily indicate a high level of ammonia. Even faint odors over a long period can lead to respiratory damage. Treatment usually requires removing the cat urine smell and avoiding further exposure.


There are several effective solutions for eliminating cat urine smell in your home. The key is using products that contain enzymes that break down the ammonia in urine. Some top recommended products include:

enzymatic cleaners designed to eliminate cat urine smell

  • Nature’s Miracle Advanced Stain and Odor Remover – Contains bio-enzymatic formula to attack urine proteins and break down odors (Source).
  • Rocco & Roxie Professional Strength Stain & Odor Eliminator – Uses an enzymatic bacteria formula to eradicate tough urine stains and stubborn odors (Source).
  • Angry Orange Pet Odor Eliminator – Uses natural citrus extracts to neutralize urine odors and leave a fresh orange scent.

Air purifiers with HEPA filters can also help remove urine odors lingering in the air. Place air purifiers near urine-soaked areas and run them continuously until smells dissipate.


Preventing cat urine odor in your home involves diligent litter box maintenance and cleaning habits. Scoop your cat’s litter box at least once a day, or more frequently for multi-cat households. Completely replace the litter at least once a week, or more often if the box gets very dirty. Use clumping litter and scoop out urine clumps as soon as you notice them. Wash the litter box with soap and hot water monthly to prevent buildup of odor-causing bacteria.

Vacuum rugs and carpeted areas frequently to remove any loose dander or fur that could hold odors. Use an enzyme-based pet odor eliminator regularly on carpets and upholstery to break down urine proteins and prevent lingering smells.

vacuuming carpet to remove cat dander and odor

Keep cats away from carpeted areas or furniture you don’t want them using as a bathroom. Place litter boxes in easy-to-access areas on non-porous flooring. Cats have a natural tendency to eliminate in quiet, private, and absorbent places.

Consider adding more litter boxes around your home if you have multiple cats. The general recommendation is one box per cat, plus an additional box in a different location.

Take cats to the vet regularly to rule out medical issues leading to inappropriate urination. Conditions like urinary tract infections or kidney disease can cause changes in urination habits.

Thoroughly clean any accidents on floors or furniture as soon as possible using an enzymatic cleaner. The longer the urine sits, the more it can soak in and create lingering odors.

When to Seek Help

If you or a family member are experiencing concerning symptoms from exposure to cat urine, it’s important to seek medical attention. Signs of ammonia poisoning or respiratory distress that warrant urgent care include:

  • Coughing, wheezing, chest tightness, or shortness of breath
  • Headaches, dizziness, or feeling faint
  • Burning eyes, blurred vision, or excessive tearing
  • Nausea, vomiting, or diarrhea
  • Sore throat or difficulty swallowing

According to experts, breathing difficulties, coughing, and chest tightness after exposure to cat urine may be signs of an asthma attack or other breathing emergency, requiring immediate medical care (1). Likewise, experiencing multiple symptoms of ammonia poisoning like headache, nausea, and burning eyes indicates a need for prompt evaluation (2).

In children, watch for flaring nostrils, ribs pulling in during breathing, or lips or fingernails turning blue – these require emergency treatment. Seek medical advice any time symptoms seem abnormal or severe after inhaling cat urine smells.

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