The Mystery of the Orange Cat’s Black Gums


Many cat owners have noticed that orange cats often have black or very dark gums, which seems unusual compared to other cat coat colors. The genetics behind feline coat color and pigmentation are complex and fascinating. While gum color is partly linked to coat color, it can also indicate a cat’s overall health status. Understanding the connection between your cat’s outer appearance and inner physiology provides useful insight for monitoring their health and wellbeing. Although general patterns exist, there are always individual exceptions among cats. This article will provide an overview of how genetics determines both coat color and gum color in cats, while also exploring typical features, unique cases, and health considerations related to your cat’s gums.

The Genetics Behind Coat Color in Cats

Cats come in a huge variety of colors and patterns, and these are all determined by feline genetics and genes inherited from their parents. There are 4 main genes that control most of the coat colors seen in cats:

  • Color (Locus B) – Determines if cat is black/brown or red/orange
  • Agouti (Locus A) – Controls distribution of black/brown pigment, creating tabby patterns
  • Colorpoint (Locus C) – Causes lighter color on body with darker points on extremities
  • White spotting (Locus S) – Produces white spots and markings

In addition, other genes like orange (Locus O) and dilution modify the effects of the main color genes. Cat coat genetics involve the complex interplay between these genes inherited from parent cats.

The Link Between Coat Color and Gum Pigmentation

The pigmentation of a cat’s gums is directly related to its coat color genetics. This is because the genes that control coat color and pattern in cats also impact the production and distribution of melanin, which is the pigment responsible for coloration of fur, skin, and gums.

For example, orange cats have a mutation in the sex-linked orange (O) gene that inhibits the production of melanin in the fur. However, this mutation does not affect melanin production in the gums, so orange cats retain the dark pigmentation there

Other coat colors like cinnamon and fawn are caused by mutations in the melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) gene, which dilutes black pigment. With less melanin overall, these cats often have lighter gum pigmentation as well.

So in summary, the genes that control the production, type, and distribution of melanin affect both fur and gum coloration. This genetic link explains why certain coat colors, like orange, are associated with particular gum pigment patterns.

Why Orange Cats Often Have Black Gums

The genetics behind orange coat color in cats is closely linked to the pigmentation of their gums. Orange cats have coats that are completely orange due to two copies of a gene mutation that suppresses the production of dark pigment. This mutation affects eumelanin, the pigment responsible for black, brown, and gray fur colors.

While eumelanin production is suppressed in the fur, the mutation does not suppress pigment production everywhere in the body. Orange cats still produce eumelanin in their skin and gums, which is why they often have black or grey gums despite their vibrant orange coats.

The specific gene responsible is the orange color gene, which is located on the X chromosome. Since male cats only have one X chromosome, a single copy of the orange color mutation results in a vibrant orange coat. Female orange cats, with two X chromosomes, need two copies of the mutation to override any non-orange coat genes and produce a purely orange coat.

So in summary, the genetics behind orange fur – the suppression of dark eumelanin pigment production in the coat but not the skin – directly leads to the striking appearance of black gums adjacent to a bright orange coat.


Other Cat Coat Colors and Typical Gum Colors

While orange cats often have black gums, other coat colors are associated with different gum pigmentations. Here is an overview of typical gum colors for other cat coat types:

Black cats – Black cats usually have black or dark gray gums that match their fur. The dark pigmentation is linked to the gene that causes their all-black coat and eye color. However some black cats may have pinkish gums.

White cats – White cat gums can range from light pink to dark gray or black. Many white cats have pink gums, but some may have darker pigmentation especially if they have some faint coloring on their fur. The gums may get darker as the cat ages.

Tabby cats – Tabby cat gums are often pinkish, though the gums can take on a darker hue of pink or purple tint depending on the cat’s specific tabby coat pattern. This is influenced by the tabby gene expression.

Tortoiseshell cats – Tortoiseshell cats exhibit a mottled coat with patches of color due to having both red and black fur. Their gums may show a similar mottled pattern, with parts pink and parts dark or black. The gum color correlates with the tortoiseshell pattern.

Calico cats – Like tortoiseshells, calico cats have three colors in their coat – white, orange, and black. Their gums can show a blend of pink, dark gray, and black spots or patches reflecting their multi-colored calico patterns.

The gum color in cats is closely linked to the genetics behind their coat color and fur pigmentation. While not a perfect predictor, gum shade often aligns with the cat’s overall coloring.

Exceptions to the Rules

While orange cats typically have black gums and other coat colors generally align with expected gum pigmentation, there are some exceptions. According to, purebred Siamese cats often have naturally pale pink gums, regardless of their coat color. Some other potential reasons a cat’s gums may not match the expected color include temperature changes, gum disease, anemia, and other health conditions.

Cats with lighter coat colors like white, cream, fawn, or red may sometimes have black spotting or patches on their gums even if they do not have any black hair. This is believed to be caused by the action of the piebald gene that creates their coat pattern.

There are also exceptions among black cats. Solid black cats will usually have black gums, but black cats with white spotting may have pinkish gums in the areas corresponding to their white coat markings, according to The piebald gene is again responsible for this variation in gum pigmentation.

So while coat color generally correlates to gum color in cats, exceptions can occur due to breed characteristics, temperature changes, health conditions, and the influence of genes regulating spotting and pigment distribution.

Health Considerations

While uncommon gum colors like blue, purple, very pale pink, bright red, or bright yellow can sometimes indicate health issues, the typical gum pigmentation of orange cats does not correlate to any particular health concerns. According to experts, the blackish gum color seen in many orange cats is a normal genetic variation and not necessarily an indicator of medical problems.

However, it’s still important for cat owners to monitor their pet’s gum color and health regardless of coat color. Gum inflammation, excessive plaque, ulcers, and other abnormalities could signal issues like gingivitis, immune disorders, kidney disease or other conditions that warrant veterinary attention. Regularly lifting a cat’s lips to inspect their gums and teeth is a simple way owners can spot potential problems early.

While orange cats may naturally have darker gums, sudden changes in gum color later in life, especially to very pale, blue, purple or bright red shades, do warrant a veterinary visit to diagnose the cause. So gum color alone isn’t necessarily indicative of health status, but owners should inform their vet if they notice any unusual color changes or gum abnormalities when inspecting their cat’s mouth.

According to, some potential causes of abnormal gum colors include:

  • Pale gums: Anemia, internal bleeding, circulatory shock
  • Blue/purple gums: Low oxygen levels
  • Bright red gums: High fever, heat stroke
  • Bright yellow gums: Liver or gallbladder issues

So while orange cats often naturally have darker gums, it’s still important for owners to monitor for any unusual changes that could indicate disease. Regular veterinary checkups and dental exams allow early identification and treatment of potential gum or health problems regardless of a cat’s natural gum pigmentation.

Owner Tips for Caring for Cat Gums

As a cat owner, there are a few things you can do at home to help take care of your cat’s oral health and monitor their gum health:

  • Brush your cat’s teeth daily if possible. Use a soft-bristled toothbrush and cat-safe toothpaste. This helps reduce plaque buildup and inflammation (KittyBiome).
  • Examine your cat’s gums and teeth regularly for signs of inflammation, redness, bleeding, or bad breath. Healthy gums should be pink with no swelling (Scottsdale Cat Clinic).
  • Feed dental treats or kibble formulated to help control tartar. Look for the VOHC seal from the Veterinary Oral Health Council when choosing dental products (RSPCA).
  • Schedule regular dental cleanings with your veterinarian as recommended, usually once a year. Professional cleanings are important for managing plaque below the gumline.
  • Consider cat-safe oral rinses or gels that can help kill bacteria between brushings.
  • Avoid sugary human foods, which can lead to cavities. Stick to cat food and treats designed for oral health.

Establishing good dental care habits can go a long way in protecting your cat’s gums and teeth. Speak with your vet if you notice signs of dental disease or have any concerns about your cat’s oral health.

Frequently Asked Questions

Cat owners often have questions about their cat’s gum color and what is considered normal. Here are answers to some common questions:

What gum color is normal for cats?

Healthy cat gums are typically light pink in color, neither too pale nor too bright. Some variation in gum color is normal between breeds and individual cats. As long as the gums are moist and firm with no swelling, the color is likely normal for your cat [1].

Why do my cat’s gums look pale or white?

Pale gums can indicate anemia, blood loss, or circulatory problems, which should be evaluated by a veterinarian. Cats with white gums specifically may have immune disorders, cancer, kidney disease, or other illnesses [2].

What does it mean if my cat’s gums are bright red?

Bright red gums often signal a fever or inflammation in the body. Cats also sometimes have inflamed gums after a dental procedure. If the red color persists more than a day or two, contact your veterinarian.

Are black gums in cats unhealthy?

Black pigmentation on a cat’s gums is entirely normal, especially in breeds like Persians and Himalayans. Darker gums are not necessarily unhealthy, but any major color change should be checked by a vet.


In summary, there is a strong correlation between coat color and gum pigmentation in cats. This is due to the genetics involved in determining both fur and skin color. Orange cats, along with other red coated cats, often have black gums as a result of these genetic links. While this is a common pattern, there are some exceptions, such as dilute orange cats that may have pink gums.

Understanding the connection between coat color and gum color provides useful insight for cat owners and veterinarians. However, it’s important to note that gum color alone cannot diagnose health issues. Regular dental exams are still needed, regardless of a cat’s gum color. With proper dental care and nutrition, cat owners can help ensure their cat’s gums stay healthy, whether black, pink or spotted.

While coat color does not impact overall cat health, the genetic factors that determine gum pigmentation are fascinating. The next time you get a glimpse of your cat’s mouth, remember the science behind why your furry friend likely has black gums to match their orange fur.

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